E-ISSN 1309-4866
Research Article
Effects of Hemodialysis on Visual Pathways Assessed by Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs)
1 Department of Neurology, Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey  
2 Department of Nephrology, Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey  
Arch Neuropsychiatry ; : -
DOI: 10.5152/npa.2016.11817
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Key Words: Chronic renal failure, visual evoked potentials, hemodialysis

Introduction: Uremia is a metabolic disorder that affects the functions of the central nervous system (CNS). Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can be used to demonstrate uremia-induced effects on the CNS. Data on VEPs of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of renal failure and the ultrafiltration rate (UFR) on CNS functions in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) using VEPs.


Methods: The study consisted of 30 CRF patients undergoing HD and a control group of 28 individuals, matched in terms of age and gender. Patients with mental retardation, diabetes mellitus, demyelinating disease, stroke, use of neurotoxic drugs, and ophtalmologic diseases were excluded from the study. The pattern VEP (PVEP) parameters recorded were latencies to N75 (N1), P100 (P1) and N135 (N2) waves, and the peak-to-peak amplitude of a P100 wave. The PVEP was taken twice just before and 24 h after HD, and the PVEP parameters were compared. Additionally, the effect of the UFR on the PVEP parameters was examined.


Results: There was no difference between the HD group and control group in terms of gender and age (mean ages of 49.56±­12.52 and 48.53­±13.28 years, respectively). The average HD period was 87.5­3±­56.34 months. The P1 latencies between the two eyes the patients with CRF were prolonged when compared to those of the controls (right eye: p=0.002; left eye: p=0.019). A single HD session significantly shortened the latency of the P1 waves compared to that of the baseline waves (p<0.000). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between the difference in the P1 latency before and after HD and the UFR (right eye: p=0.03, r=0.525; left eye: p=0.022, r=0.417, respectively)



Conclusion: We conclude that VEP, which is an easy, cheap, and simple electrophysiological method, can be used to determine subclinical CNS dysfunction in patients with CRF and show the effect of fluid removal during HD on the visual pathways and show the corrective effect of effective fluid imaging on the visual pathways.

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