E-ISSN 1309-4866
Research Article
Extreme Appraisals of Internal States and Duration of Remission in Remitted Bipolar Patients
1 Department of Psychology, Okan University, İstanbul, Turkey  
2 Department of Psychology, Yeni Yüzyıl University, İstanbul, Turkey  
3 Pinna Psychology Psychological Services Center, İstanbul, Turkey  
4 Department of Psychology, Yaşar University, İzmir, Turkey  
5 Department of Psychology, Manchester University, Manchester, UK  
Arch Neuropsychiatry 2015; 52: 406-411
DOI: 10.5152/npa.2015.7611
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Key Words: Bipolar, remission, hypomanic attitudes, dysfunctional cognitions

Introduction: To identify dysfunctional attitudes seen in bipolar disorder (BPD) is important for the cognitive theories of BPD and corresponding psychosocial interventions. Cognitions are seen as vulnerability factors in the development and maintenance of BPD. The present study aims to contribute to the cognitive literature on BPD by examining depressive and hypomanic attitudes and their contribution to the prediction of BPD diagnosis as well as by exploring the relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and clinical features (types of episodes experienced, duration of illness, and duration of remission).


Methods: One hundred and eighteen remitted bipolar patients and 103 healthy controls completed the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), Turkish Brief-Hypomanic Interpretations and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale.


Results: The bipolar group had significantly higher depressive and hypomanic attitudes than the control group. No significant differences were found regarding the types of episodes experienced and duration of illness. However, both types of attitudes decreased as the duration of remission increased. They were also found to contribute to the prediction of bipolar diagnosis together with the screening of the MDQ.


Conclusion: The results pointed out that dysfunctional cognitions may be utilized as possible indicators for the risk of relapse in clinical groups and vulnerability for BPD among other populations.  

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Latest Update: 29.12.2017