E-ISSN 1309-4866
Research Article
Serum Levels of Melatonin and Sleep Evaluation Scales in the Diagnosis of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Idiopathıc Parkinson’s Disease
1 Department of Neurology, İzmir TepecikTraining and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey  
Arch Neuropsychiatry ; : -
DOI: 10.5152/npa.2017.19367
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Key Words: Parkinson’s disease, melatonin, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep disorders
Abstract

Introduction: Sleep disturbances, such as difficulty in initiation of sleep, decrease in total sleep duration and efficacy, frequent awakenings, and increased daytime sleepiness are among the most common non-motor symptoms in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, patients usually do not consider these symptoms as important as their motor symptoms and do not complain. We aimed to investigate PD patients for subtle sleep disturbances using sleep evaluation scales and to evaluate the relationship between these tests and the serum levels of melatonin during night-sleep.

 

Methods: A total of 40 PD patients (19, female), older than 50 years, registered in our “Movement Disorders Out-patient Clinic”, and 40 healthy, age and sex-matched control subjects (20, female) were included in the study. All subjects were assessed using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Serum melatonin levels during night-sleep were measured in blood samples taken at 00:00 and 05:00 hours in every subject. Both groups were compared for demographical data, sleep evaluation scales and serum levels of melatonin.

 

Results: Patients with PD had significantly higher scores in PSQI and ESS than the healthy controls (p<0.001). Although the serum melatonin levels at two different time points during night sleep were lower in PD patients than the controls, these differences did not reach statistical significance (p=0.104 at 00:00 am, p=0.528 at 05:00 am). There was no significant correlation between the PSQI scores and serum melatonin levels in patient group (p>0.05). However, there was a significant but weak correlation (r=-0.353, p=0.025) between ESS scores and the serum melatonin levels measured at 05:00 hours in patients, but not between the melatonin levels measured at 00:00 hours.

 

Conclusion: Sleep evaluation questionnaires such as, PSQI and ESS, can provide useful information in PD patients with mild sleep disturbances. However, serum melatonin levels, alone, were not helpful in diagnosing the sleep disorders. 

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