E-ISSN 1309-4866
Research Article
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Nicotine Dependence in Adults
1 Department of Psychiatry, Ağrı Doğu Beyazıt State Hospital, Ağrı, Turkey  
2 Department of Psychiatry, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Research and Training Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey  
3 Department of Psychiatry, Bakırköy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, İstanbul, Turkey  
Arch Neuropsychiatry ; : -
DOI: 10.5152/npa.2017.15882
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Key Words: Smoking addiction, adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Introduction: The aim of this study is to assess clinical characteristics and smoking profiles of individuals diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and compare their nicotine dependence status with healthy controls in order to better understand the mutual and complex relationship between ADHD and smoking.


Methods: 40 adults with the diagnosis of ADHD, 40 participants who applied to the smoking cessation polyclinic without any psychiatric disorders and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Sociodemographic Data Form, Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADD/ADHD Diagnosis and Evaluation Inventory and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test (FNDT) were applied to the participants.


Results: Mean age of groups were ADHD: 28.68±7.22, nicotine dependence: 34.17±8.60, control group: 33.70±7.45. Percentages of females and males respectively were %27.5; %72.5 in ADHD group, %50; %50 in nicotine dependence group, %47.5; %52.5  in control group. Attention deficit scores in ADHD, nicotine dependence and control group were respectively 21.18±5.05, 7.23±3.96, 4.75±2.65 (p=0.001). Hyperactivity scores were respectively 17.73±5.84, 6.43±4.2, 3.58±2.27 (p=0.001). Related features scores were respectively56.53±12.96, 24.30±13.93, 13.13±6.11 (p=0.001). WURS scores were 61.88±12.69, 23.03±16.07, 11.90±8.15  (p=0.001). FNDT scores in ADHD and nicotine dependence groups were respectively 5.83±2.11, 6.20±2.74  (p=0.495).


Conclusion: Considering the argument of ADHD being a risk factor for nicotine dependence per se, we think the co-occurence of the smoking addiction and ADHD symptoms in the context of dopamine dysregulation, is important in clinical evaluations. Treatment modalities and of preventive strategies should be considered on this manner.


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